Rainwater Chemistry Composition in Bellsund: Sources of Elements and Deposition Discrepancies in the Coastal Area (SW Spitsbergen, Svalbard)
Lehman-Konera, S., Ruman, M., Frankowski, M., Raczynski, K., Pawlak, F., KozioÅ', K., & Polkowska, &. (2023). Rainwater Chemistry Composition in Bellsund: Sources of Elements and Deposition Discrepancies in the Coastal Area (SW Spitsbergen, Svalbard). Chemosphere. 313, 137281. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.137281.
Discrepancies in rainfall chemistry in Bellsund were found to be influenced by the orographic barrier and related to the variability in the inflow of air masses as well as to the distance of sampling sites from the sea and thus the extent of sea spray impact. This study covers measurements of rainfall (P) and air temperature (T), physicochemical parameters (pH, specific electrolytic conductivity (SEC), major ions (Clâˆ', NO3âˆ', SO42âˆ') and elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K), as well as trace elements (i.a. As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Co, Pb, Ni, Zn) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in 22 rainfall samples collected in August on the Calypsostranda marine terrace and in the forefield of a land-terminating glacier (NW Wedel Jarlsberg Land). The comparison of chemical parameters in the samples revealed major discrepancies, including statistically significant higher rainwater pH and SEC, and the levels of Ag, As, Bi, Ca, Co, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, and V, deposited near the seashore (Calypsostranda) than in the glacier forefield. Cluster analysis (CA) showed that elements deposited in lower concentrations at the glacier forefield site came from predominately anthropogenic sources. Conversely, CA results of metals and metalloids deposited on the Calypsostranda marine terrace indicate both natural and anthropogenic sources. A correlation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA) permitted identifying two primary factors affecting rainfall chemistry at each of the study sites. In Calypsostranda, these were the inflow of relatively unpolluted cold air (F1 = 35.1%) and sea spray (F2 = 27.6%), while in the glacier forefield the factors were an orographic barrier (F1 = 37.3%) and the inflow of polluted warm air (F2 = 25.2%).